Peoples expressed themselves in different historical periods, through their civilized activities in the arts, literature and sciences of all kinds, and architectural and urban art remained one of the richest indications of peoples' progress and advancement.
And if civilization is the product of a people, or a nation, in various fields of life, then architecture is the embodiment of all concepts, and a reduction of the values, beliefs and cultures of any civilization.
The pyramids were not only a size that expresses the field of design and the miraculousness of construction, but rather it is above all a building that expresses the thought and philosophy of immortality among the ancient Egyptian peoples, as well as the ziggurats in Mesopotamia, which are towers that contain in their upper levels small temples of the gods, and their height expresses Rising towards the sky, the abode of the gods, and the same applies to Greek, Roman and Byzantine temples and monuments, each civilization according to its own beliefs and philosophy, up to the skyscrapers that express the power of money and the control of the free economy over everything around it.
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The art of Islamic architecture and decoration has a very long history, as this art accommodates in its content any kind of ideas that would serve it to present the best in this art of architecture style of skills and creations, whether ancient or modern, to present a creative final image in the art of design and decorating.
The art of Islamic architecture and decoration arose as a result of the developments and overlaps between the arts of ancient civilizations and brought them together and was influenced by them and produced a wonderful art that is unparalleled. Islamic architecture can be summarized as the structural characteristics that Muslims used to be their identity. The Arabs, Iraq, Egypt, the Levant, the Arab Maghreb, Turkey, Iran, Khorasan, the country beyond the two rivers and Sindh, in addition to the areas they ruled for long periods such as Andalusia (now Spain) and India. And influenced the characteristics of Islamic architectureIts attributes are largely related to the Islamic religion and the scientific renaissance that followed it, and they differ from one region to another depending on the weather and the previous architectural and cultural heritage in the region, where the open plate spreads in the Levant, Iraq and the Arabian Peninsula, while it disappeared in Turkey as a result of the cold weather and in Yemen because of the architectural legacy. We also see the evolution of form and function over time and with the change in the political, living and cultural conditions of the population.
Islamic architecture has major elements, including:
The mosque, the minaret, the dome, the courtyard, the chambers of the mothers of the believers, the iwan, the trench, the wells, the pointed arches or the five arches according to the method of their construction, the mihrab, the mashrabiya, the locks, the basement, the deck, the wall, the citadel, the fort, the Islamic house, the khan, the palace, The mosque, the archways, the dams, the gates, and many other places that took the formation of the features of Islamic architecture and fit the character of Islamic art.
Islamic architecture includes the architectural styles of all buildings associated with Islam and the Islamic region. It includes both civil and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day. Early Islamic architecture was influenced by Roman, Byzantine, Persian, Mesopotamian and all other lands that Muslims entered in the seventh and eighth centuries AD, and to the east it was also influenced by Chinese and Indian architecture with the spread of Islam in Southeast Asia, at a later time. Distinctive characteristics were added to the shape of the buildings, and the roofs were decorated with Islamic Arabic calligraphy and interlocking geometric motifs.
New architectural designs were also invented, such as the pointed arch, muqarnas, arabesques, archways, and domes.
The main Islamic architectural types for large or public buildings included: mosques, tombs, palaces, and castles, and from these four types the principles and manifestations of general Islamic architecture are derived and used in other buildings such as public baths, fountains, and home architecture.
Among the most famous places in the history of Islamic architecture :
Today, the Taj Mahal is one of the most famous works of Islamic architecture in the world. The monument's splendor is due to its size (the height of the dome of the central shrine is 73 meters above ground level) and its beautiful shape that combines elements of Indian, Islamic and Persian design .
The white marble from which the central tomb was built dazzles onlookers from afar, and it seems to change its color with the light of day. It is located in a room below the ground floor.
The Alhambra Palace is located on a hill overlooking the Spanish city of Granada, and it is a palace built by princes belonging to the Banu Nasr (or Nasrids, or Banu al-Ahmar) (1238-1492), who ruled Granada in the late Islamic era in Andalusia until its fall at the end of the fifteenth century. Although some parts of the palace have been demolished, three parts remain: the Alcazaba on the western end of the hill, the residence of the emirs to the east, and a group of pavilions and gardens known as the Generalife.
It took more than 150 years to build. The courtyards and rooms of the Alhambra are exquisitely decorated with colored tiles, carved stucco, carved wood and Arabic calligraphy. Some of the most important features of the visual beauty are the intricately carved geometric designs (a recurring pattern in Islamic architecture called muqarnas in Arabic), which are that adorned the halls surrounding the Court of the Lions.
The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is the oldest extant Islamic monument and one of the most famous monuments. Work on the design and decoration took place in the period from 691 to 692, about 55 years after the Arab entry into Jerusalem. The design is very influenced by the inherent Byzantine architectural traditions, but it also shows Features that will later shape the distinctive Islamic architectural style.
The structure consists of a gilded wooden dome surmounted by an octagonal base, which is covered from the inside with a layer of gypsum and from the outside with a layer of lead.
Inside, there are two circular paths around the exposed sacred rock. The site is sacred to both the Jewish and Islamic religions. In Jewish tradition, it is said to be the place where Abraham prepares to sacrifice his son Isaac. In Islamic tradition, it is considered the site of Prophet Muhammad's ascension to heaven. The interior is richly decorated with marble. And mosaics and metal paintings.
Some of the most impressive works of architecture in the Middle East are the medieval castles in cities like Cairo, Damascus, and Erbil. One of the best remaining examples of Islamic military architecture is the Citadel that stands on top of a hill in the center of the Syrian city of Aleppo. Archaeologists have found fortifications on the site dating back to Roman times and earlier, but construction of the Citadel began in the 10th century, and it acquired its present form in the process of expansion and expansion. Massive reconstruction during the Ayyubid period (circa 1171-1260).
Within the walls of the castle there are dwellings, rooms for storing supplies, wells, mosques and defensive installations, that is, everything that the soldiers need to withstand the long siege. The most important part of this complex is the huge entrance, which was built around 1213. A steep stone bridge based on seven leads leads Arches through the (now dry) moat to two towering gates to enter the castle are:
The invaders had to break through the gates and navigate a winding passage while the defenders poured boiling liquid on them, shooting arrows from the numerous arrow slits that would rain down on the enemy from above.
The Suleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul is one of the most prominent landmarks of Istanbul with its towering dome and minarets, which stands on an artificial platform overlooking the Bosphorus.
Built by the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent between 1550 and 1557 at the height of the Ottoman Empire's power, this edifice is the largest and most beautiful of the imperial mosque complexes in Istanbul.
The interior of the mosque is single chambers that are square in shape, lit by more than 100 large windows, many of which are made of stained glass. The decoration is simple and may not distract attention from the size of the imposing central dome, which measures 27.5 meters in diameter. Around the mosque itself there is an orderly hospital and several Religious schools, a group of shops, a mausoleum and a bath. The complex was designed by the Ottoman architect (Sinan Agha), whose buildings were a decisive factor in establishing the distinguished Ottoman architectural style, and this mosque is considered its best masterpiece.
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We always advise to contact an engineering company that has a long history in engineering designs and experience in Islamic architecture . Smd Decoration is your appropriate choice, and for more information, you can contact the company's specialized team.