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What is the architectural style in the Grand Mosque and what are the facilities and rituals of the Grand Mosque

What is the architectural style in the Grand Mosque and what are the facilities and rituals of the Grand Mosque

Date: 2023/04/02


Table Of Contents

1- Introduction .

The Grand Mosque, is one of the most important and most visited religious sites in the world. Everyone knows the importance of the Grand Mosque for Muslims. It is located in Makkah Al-Mukarramah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It is the largest mosque in the world and the holiest site in Islam. Millions of Muslims from all over the world perform Hajj and perform many rituals and rituals of worship and get closer to God in the Grand Mosque every year. In this article, we will explore the design of the Grand Mosque's majestic exterior, tranquil interior, and the facilities and rituals of the Grand Mosque .


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2- An overview of the urban history in the design and expansion of the Grand Mosque


The Kaaba was built by Ibrahim, peace be upon him, and his son Ismail, but it was not like what it is today, as it was subjected to many reconstruction operations during its damage as a result of wars or weather conditions.

At the time of the Messenger of God Muhammad , the design of the Grand Mosque was not like today, so the mosque was not surrounded by walls and did not close any doors, and the mosque remained as it was during the reign of Caliph Abu Bakr and then during the reign of Caliph Umar bin Al-Khattab, especially in the year 17 AH, the first renovation project began Design and expansion of the Grand Mosque When heavy rains destroyed the buildings of the Grand Mosque. And because the mosque was too narrow for the worshipers, Omar wanted to expand the mosque, so he bought the buildings adjacent to the Grand Mosque and merged them. The works of  Omar Ibn Al-Khattab are the first expansion of the Grand Mosque in the Islamic era

The situation in the Sacred Mosque remained like this until the year 26 AH, i.e. during the reign of Caliph  Othman bin Affan . The work of the second expansion of the Grand Mosque began, and the first expansion followed after 10 years. After Othman bin Affan noticed an increase in Muslim arrivals to perform Hajj and Umrah, he decided to expand the Grand Mosque. And the expansion work began in the year 26 AH. He bought the floor and lands adjacent to the Grand Mosque and annexed them to the Grand Mosque and used marble columns in the corridors.

The era of the Umayyad state

The Umayyad state sought to eliminate Abdullah Ibn Al-Zubayr's rejection of its rule, and it was among them that it sent campaigns to eliminate it, and the result of the campaigns was disastrous, as the Kaaba and the mosque were damaged, so the Kaaba burned more than once, and after that it was subjected to a torrent of forces, after which Al-Walid bin Abdul-Malik worked on its maintenance, so it was the building of the fourth expansion The mosque was built in the year 91 AH, and the area of ​​the mosque was increased after the third expansion took place during the reign of Abdullah Ibn al-Zubayr.

Abbasid era

The Abbasid caliph Abu Jaafar al-Mansur  expanded the Grand Mosque in the year 137 AH, increasing its area from the north and west.  Abu Jaafar al-Mansur directed  the construction of a lighthouse in the northern and western corners.

In the era of Muhammad al-Mahdi, and after his pilgrimage, he ordered an increase in the area of ​​the Grand Mosque to double its area, and the expansion was from the northern and eastern sides.

Mamluk Sultanate era

In  the Mamluk era,  the Grand Mosque did not witness any increase or expansion during this era, but they took care of its architecture.

The era of the Ottoman Empire

It was concerned with the restoration and development of the design of the Grand Mosque, and relied on Egyptian workers and expertise in its work. A new lighthouse was built, known as the Lighthouse of Suleiman the Magnificent, and before that it was known as the Lighthouse of Wisdom.

The expansion of the Grand Mosque took place during the reign of Selim II and his son  Murad III 

During the reign of Sultan  Ahmed I, the walls of the Kaaba cracked after heavy rains, so Sultan  Murad IV ordered  its renewal at the hands of Egyptian engineers.

And when Sultan  Muhammad V ruled , he ordered the building and repair of all damages to the mosque due to the torrent known as the Khedive torrent.

The era of  the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

When the matter was established for King  Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman, the corridors   were restored   , the walls  and columns  were painted, and the Zamzam dome was maintained. Umbrellas were also installed to protect the worshipers from the sun's rays, tiling between  Safa and Marwah was established   , electricity was introduced to  Makkah Al-Mukarramah,  and the Grand Mosque was lit.  Electric fans were also placed  in the Grand Mosque, and it was named The first Saudi expansion

As for the second Saudi expansion, work continued on it continuously over several years and in four phases

One of the most important additions is the addition of two barriers to saa’i, one for saa’i from al-Safa to al-Marwah, and the other from al-Marwah to al-Safa, to reduce congestion and facilitate saa’i.

Then  King Fahd  launched a project to expand the Grand Mosque, which is called the third Saudi expansion, which was then considered the largest expansion of the Grand Mosque in fourteen centuries. 

Work is currently underway on the largest expansion of the Grand Mosque, which began during the reign of King  Abdullah bin Abdulaziz, and was followed by King Salman bin Abdulaziz  after him  . It includes three main axes, the first is the expansion of the sanctuary, and the second is the external squares, which ensure the smooth movement of entry and exit for pilgrims and worshipers. The third is the service area

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3- The importance of the Grand Mosque in the Islamic faith


The importance of the Sacred Mosque is a great place for Muslims, as the Kaaba is the qiblah of Muslims, and it is their destination in performing the obligatory Hajj and performing the supererogatory Umrah, in addition to the importance of its historical location.

The Grand Mosque witnessed many historical events, and it was a priority for expansion and development during the era of the power of states. As for its weakness, it was limited to repairing its facilities that are exposed to destructive weather factors, in order to take care of it, due to the great importance of the Grand Mosque to Muslims all over the world .

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4- The facilities and rituals of the Grand Mosque


The Kaaba is in the middle of the Grand Mosque, approximately in the form of a cube-shaped building, with a height of fifteen meters, and the length of its side that contains its door is 12 meters. It is the most important facilities of the Grand Mosque and its rituals .

Ismail stone

The Stone of Ismail is a low building in the form of a semi-circle, one end of which is parallel to the northern corner and the other parallel to the western corner. It is located north of the Holy Kaaba and has a height of about 1.30 meters. It follows the Kaaba and circumambulation is required around it.

Zamzam well

The Zamzam well is considered   one of the important elements of the facilities and rituals of the Sacred Mosque.   It is the most famous well on earth due to its distinguished spiritual status and its association with the conscience  of Muslims in general and those who perform Hajj and Umrah  rituals   in particular. 

Abraham's place

It contains the footprints of the Prophet Abraham, peace be upon him.

Safa and Marwa

Al-Safa and Al-Marwah  are two small mountains opposite each other located in the Grand Mosque. Sa’y is performed between Al-Safa and Al-Marwa as an essential pillar of Hajj and Umrah for Muslims.

end and endeavour

Mataf is the courtyard  of the Holy Kaaba,  which is the free space around the Kaaba.

black stone

It is located in the southeastern corner  of the Kaaba  from the outside, and it is the beginning and end of circumambulation.

The five main doors of the Grand Mosque

  1. King Abdul Aziz Gate
  2. Bab al-Safa
  3. The opening door
  4. Umrah Gate
  5. King Fahd Gate


There are beacons on almost all doors, and we mention the most important ones from a historical point of view:

  1. Bab al-Umrah lighthouse
  2. Lighthouses of the door of peace, door on door of farewell
  3. Bab al-Ziyad lighthouse
  4. Qaitbay School Minaret

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