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History of Aleppo al-Shahba Citadel and its archaeological features

History of Aleppo al-Shahba Citadel and its archaeological features

Date: 2023/07/01


Table Of Contents

1- Introduction:

Information about the history of the Citadel of Aleppo The historical Citadel of Aleppo is located in the city of Aleppo in the Syrian Arab Republic, where this castle is located in the central part of the city, and more precisely in an area that is higher than the rest of the world by several tens of meters. The history of the Citadel of Aleppo is considered the most important historical castles on the global   level And one of the most important monuments of the city, which was of great importance on both sides: strategically and militarily.

Information about the history of the Citadel of Aleppo  A fortified palace  The history of the Citadel of Aleppo dates back to the Middle Ages, and the Citadel of Aleppo is considered one of the oldest and largest castles in the world. The Mamluks and the Ayyubids, while it appears that most of the current construction dates back to the Ayyubid period


SMD Decoration  explains the history of the Citadel of Aleppo   to   you, dear reader. Let's go…. 

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2- The history of Aleppo al-   Shahba Citadel and its archaeological features.

History of Aleppo Citadel Al-Shahba The  history of Aleppo Citadel dates back  to the Middle Ages, and it is one of the most prominent examples of Islamic architecture that has preserved its unchanged beauty. It was built on a hill in the center of the city at an altitude of 40 meters. It includes the old part of the city with an area of ​​about 4 km2 and extends from the foot of the hill. In the castle on the western side there are the largest and best covered bazaars. along the strait. Streets, merchants flock to trade in the bazaar, there are also high-walled houses in the traditional residential areas of the old town and this enshrines the history of Aleppo's Shahba Citadel


 To watch a video about the history of Aleppo Citadel, click here   


And because  SMD Decoration   is the most distinguished company in the art of interior decoration,  it shows you, dear reader, what is the history of Aleppo Citadel  and its archaeological features as follows….


History of Aleppo Citadel at the dawn of history

 Archaeological evidence found at the site of the Citadel of Aleppo indicates that the history of the Citadel of Aleppo  dates back to the second millennium BC. during the Hittite era. Many ancient temples have been discovered, such as the temple of the Aramean god Hadad and the temple of the god Chub

It was used as a fortress against foreign attacks and invasions in the Hellenistic and Roman eras

Then the region came under Byzantine rule, and the Byzantines seized a fortified castle from the old temple structure, which remained under Byzantine control until its liberation by Arabs and Muslims, and then the Arabs took control of the Citadel of Aleppo. Then the Hamdanids ruled it and restored it and took care of its buildings, then the Mirdasids ruled it, then the Sanqur family and King Radwan bin Tach, then the Ayyubids and the apparent king became Ghazi bin Salah al-Din. The Ayyubid took care of the Citadel of Aleppo. So he built

An important piece. There is a wall, a mosque, and many palaces. They fortified them and dug a moat around them.

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History of Aleppo Citadel since the end of the thirteenth century


The history of the Aleppo Citadel shows that the famous Mongol ruler Hulagu invaded the Citadel of Aleppo and caused severe damage to part of the building, and the Citadel remained under the control of the Mongols until the Arab Islamic armies managed to defeat it in the Battle of Ain Jalut.

The Arab rulers restored the Citadel of Aleppo during their reign, repairing the damage caused by subsequent raids to the Citadel's features.

Aleppo Citadel was invaded again by Tamerlane, who destroyed the city of Aleppo. The castle remained that way until the Mamluks liberated and restored it, then the Mamluks occupied it. The Ottoman sultans succeeded in ruling the castle until 1840, and in the middle of the twentieth century, the Syrian Directorate General of Antiquities carried out restoration work for the castle and made it available to visitors and tourists.

Christian buildings of the sixth century, in addition to medieval walls and gates, mosques and madrasahs related to the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods, and mosques and palaces built later in the Ottoman period

3- The history of Aleppo Citadel  and its distinctive architectural style     

The history of the Citadel of Aleppo and the architecture of the Citadel reflect the development of the art of military architecture through the way it was built, the shapes of its square, rectangular and hexagonal towers, the spiral entrance, and the large columns in the wall that form the cohesion of the wall, in addition to the stone nails in the large wall, adding many ports to launch an arrow  And armored iron doors and geometric interceptors that constitute a decorative element of aesthetic value in  the history of the Citadel of Aleppo and Civil structures such as the royal palace, throne room and doorways. In addition to using an open outer corridor so that the defenders could hear blows from the attackers who managed to break through the first line of defence. The bridge does not lead directly to the main entrance, but swings perpendicular to the entrance, and the sides of the corner are two walls equipped with nails and arrows that allow the elimination of the enemy and prevent him from using the old tool to break the door. Arabs..


Inside Aleppo Citadel

The history of the construction of the Citadel of Aleppo Inside the citadel there are two mosques, the oldest of which is the Ibrahim al-Khalil Mosque, which was built by Nur al-Din Zangi. As for the Great Mosque, it was built by al-Zahir Ghazi bin Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi.

The castle also contains a square minaret with a height of (20) meters in the northern part of the castle. To the east of the Grand Mosque lies the Ibrahim Pasha barracks, which was built of stones extracted from the foot of the hill. Many symbols were placed, some of which symbolize their state and others that have ritual and ideological connotations. Which dates back to the history of the city of Aleppo Citadel



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The ancient citadel reflects   the history of the Citadel of Aleppo  in the Arab military power as well as its exposure to occupation by ancient civilizations. The citadel contains the remains of mosques, palaces, and bath buildings. It is noteworthy that the walled city that arose around the citadel bears evidence of early Greco-Roman street planning. It also contains remains of Christian buildings in addition to medieval walls and gates, mosques, and schools related to the Ayyubid and Mamluk eras, mosques, and palaces that were built later in the Ottoman period. 


4- The history of the Citadel of Aleppo , the archaeological decoration , and the services provided by SMD Decoration   .  

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SMD Decoration Company explains   that the Aleppo Citadel is one of the most beautiful, creative and largest castles, and that the history of the Citadel of Aleppo  is a history full of events. It was a starting point and a base for many rulers, kings and leaders, and witnessed the most important events in the East from the era of the Arameans through many civilizations to the Islamic era.

The SMD Decoration company     advises every engineer when implementing the interior decoration  to follow a method in the preparation process for the project and gives his creativity that he does to reach the results 

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The SMD Decoration company is one of the best distinguished companies, so that when you receive a specific project, you follow it up, starting from developing the plan in terms of small details, all the way to setting the final finishes, so he decided to be distinguished through the distinguished SMD Decoration services that we offer you, so we put our own mark in any field Focusing on simple details to achieve great results, such as thinking about the harmony between the surrounding environment and the exterior design. To contact customer service, click here  


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